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Belief on Religion
by: David Dawn


Family Cycles

Letter from Ruth Montgomery

Religion of the Kemet Civilization
by: Anthony Browder


Religion of the Kemet Civilization
by: David Dawn


The Teaching of the Kaballah

Secret of Secrets
 

Videos


I feel these videos are the most direct way of learning what the true Kemet religion is all about.
The goal is to learn a lot more about how other religions come from the Kemet religion and the true teachings.

Mystery Teachings of Ancient Egypt


 

This is looking at religion from modern mans ancient ancestors' point of view, which was written out of our modern day history.

We are not here to push you to change your religion or any of your beliefs. The basic pratice of praying and believing of all religions is taken from the Kemet Religion.  We are here to educate people to have an open mind.

The Kemet religion relates science with religion by teaching the very basic methods of the technology of the soul and spirit coming together with the cosmos. Knowledge is very important in life and we are here to educate the people of the world about a different way of thinking about religious teachings.

In the Kemet Religion rather then looking for someone to save you, like Jesus or Mother Mary. You are tought to save your self. There are several levels in the process of going to heaven. Refuring to the 7 levals of heaven. Each level takes you closer to being Godly. People like Jesus was at a higher level of Godlyness then the average person. This is the main reason why we are here.

The Kemet Civilization religion believes that God sees and hears through us and that this is a world of thought. That is why any type of prayer is so strong because the energy of that thought is amplified in that belief. People create God through thought and in that thought we create images of what we feel God should be. We are the chosen people because we choose God. In other words the concept is, free people choose their relationship with the creator. Free people create god in their own image and thus we have many different religions around the world. We are souls that inhabit thought worlds. For this is the destiny of every soul everywhere, to be like Jesus, the great Yogi-Christ of India, and the ascended Masters, all of whom exhibit the same awareness through identification with the omnipresent I AM consciousness.

The Kemet religion believed that God or our Creator or as the people of Kemet called him Natru is from man's thought. Man created our Creator or Natru through thought and in that thought we created the images of what we feel our Creator should be with his feelings and how he should react. When we realize that Natru, God or the Creator is in every cell of your body we become Godly and because of that we are able to do any thing that Asar, Jesus, any prophet and spiritual leader have done. Remember we can only be taught in the right way, the positive way of living our life. 

This is the great secret of our ancient ancestors. The Kemet people were taught to believe that from the day of birth on to this world we are pure in mind and spirit. It is what we are taught from our society that embeds negitive thoughts with in us. Which leads to negitive habits and ways of living.

The internal self is the past, present and future or all three is in one, they are simultaneous because we are living these three time periods at the same time. The belief of our Creator seeing, feeling and hearing through us. Our body is the temple of our Creator. The energy of our Creator flowing through us gives us the power to do any thing we really wish to do. 

Ancient Egyptian/Kemet Religion
 
Ancient Egyptian Religion - Ancient History Encyclopedia
https://www.ancient.eu/Egyptian_Religion
by Joshua J. Mark
published on 10 February 2017

Definition. Egyptian religion was a combination of beliefs and practices which, in the modern day, would include magic, mythology, science, medicine, psychiatry, spiritualism, herbology, as well as the modern understanding of ' religion ' as belief in a higher power and a life after death.
 
The first written records of Egyptian religious practice come from around 3400 BCE in the Predynastic Period in Egypt (c.6000-c.3150 BCE). Deities such as Isis, Osiris, Ptah, Hathor, Atum, Set, Nephthys, and Horus were already established as potent forces to be recognized fairly early on. The Egyptian Creation Myth is similar to the beginning of the Mesopotamian story in that originally there was only chaotic, slow-swirling waters. This ocean was without bounds, depthless, and silent until, upon its surface, there rose a hill of earth (known as the ben-ben, the primordial mound, which, it is thought, the pyramids symbolize) and the great god Atum (the sun) stood upon the ben-ben and spoke, giving birth to the god Shu (of the air), the goddess Tefnut (of moisture), the god Geb (of earth), and the goddess Nut (of sky). Alongside Atum stood Heka, the personification of magic, and magic (heka) gave birth to the universe.
 
While polytheism means the worship of many gods, henotheism means the worship of one god in many forms. This shift in understanding was extremely rare in the ancient world, and the goddess Isis and god Amun of Egypt are probably the best examples of the complete ascendancy of a deity from one-among-many to the supreme creator and sustainer of the universe recognized in different forms.
 
In ancient times, religion was indistinguishable from what is known as 'mythology' in the present day and consisted of regular rituals based on a belief in higher supernatural entities who created and continued to maintain the world and surrounding cosmos. Theses entities were anthropomorphic and behaved in ways which mirrored the values of the culture closely (as in Egypt) or sometimes engaged in acts antithetical to those values (as one sees with the gods of Greece). Religion, then and now, concerns itself with the spiritual aspect of the human condition, gods and goddesses (or a single personal god or goddess), the creation of the world, a human being's place in the world, life after death, eternity, and how to escape from suffering in this world or in the next; and every nation has created its own god in its own image and resemblance. The Greek philosopher Xenophanes of Colophon (c. 570-478 BCE) once wrote:
 
One of the Egyptian gods who formed the triad of Memphis (along with his spouse Sekhmet and daughter Nefertum), Ptah was the personification of creation. In essence, Ptah was perceived as the ultimate creator who not only fashioned the universe but also ‘breathed life’ into the entities populating the world. Suffice it to say, Ptah was a widely popular god in ancient Egypt – so much so that the very name Egypt derived from Greek Aigyptos, was originally borrowed from Amarna Hikuptah, corresponding to Egyptian Ha(t)-ka-ptah or ‘temple of the soul of Ptah’, the god’s religious sanctuary in Memphis.
Ptah was also hailed as the ‘self-created one’, thus suggesting that his role in specific creation as opposed to the all-encompassing nature of the aforementioned Amun-Ra. To that end, Ptah was regarded as the patron deity of sculptors, painters, builders, and other artisans. This allusion to his ‘master architect’ status possibly also played a part in inspiring a few aspects of Christian theology and Masonic elements.

 
As for his physical nature, Ptah was often depicted as a mummified bearded man with green skin. His arms were kept free to hold a scepter, and his overall profile contained the three powerful symbols of ancient Egyptian religion:  the Was scepter, the sign of life, Ankh, and the Djed pillar. These motifs suggested the combined essence of his creative prowess, – the power, life-giving ability, and stability.
 
Religion in ancient Egypt was fully integrated into the people's daily lives. The gods were present at one's birth, throughout one's life, in the transition from earthly life to the eternal, and continued their care for the soul in the afterlife of the Field of Reeds. The spiritual world was ever present in the physical world and this understanding was symbolized through images in art, architecture, in amulets, statuary, and the objects used by nobility and clergy in the performance of their duties.
 
Common Themes in Ancient Kemet Religion & Their Continuance
 
The religions of the ancient world shared many of the same patterns with each other even though the cultures may never have had any contact with each other. The spiritual iconography of the Mayan and Egyptian pyramids has been recognized since the Maya were first brought to the world's attention by John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood in the 19th century CE, but the actual belief structures, stories, and most significant figures in ancient mythology are remarkably similar from culture to culture.
 
In every culture, one finds the same or very similar patterns, which the people found resonant and which gave vitality to their beliefs. These patterns include the existence of many gods who take a personal interest in the lives of people; creation by a supernatural entity who speaks it, fashions it, or commands it into existence; other supernatural beings emanating from the first and greatest one; a supernatural explanation for the creation of the earth and human beings; a relationship between the created humans and their creator god requiring worship and sacrifice.
 
There is also the repetition of the figure known as the Dying and Reviving God, often a powerful entity himself, who is killed or dies and comes back to life for the good of his people: Osiris in Egypt, Krishna in India, the Maize God in Mesoamerica, Bacchus in Rome, Attis in Greece, Tammuz in Mesopotamia. There is often an afterlife similar to an earthly existence (Egypt and Greece), antithetical to life on earth (Mesoamerica and Mesopotamia), or a combination of both (China and India).
The resonant spiritual message of these different religions is repeated in texts from Phoenicia (2700 BCE) to Sumer (2100 BCE) to Palestine (1440 BCE) to Greece (800 BCE) to Rome (c. 100 CE) and went on to inform the beliefs of those who came later. This motif is even touched on in Judaism in the figure of Joseph (Genesis 37, 39-45) who is sold by his brothers into slavery in Egypt, goes down into prison following the accusations of Potiphar's wife, and is later released and restored. Although he does not actually die, after his symbolic 'resurrection' he saves the country from famine, providing for the people in the same way as other regenerative figures.

 
The Phoenician tale of the great god Baal who dies and returns to life to battle the chaos of the god Yamm was already old in 2750 BCE when the city of Tyre was founded (according to Herodotus) and the Greek story of the dying and reviving god Adonis (c. 600 BCE) was derived from earlier Phoenician tales based on Tammuz which was borrowed by the Sumerians (and later the Persians) in the famous Descent of Inanna myth.
 
This theme of life-after-death and life coming from death and, of course, the judgment after death, gained the greatest fame through the evangelical efforts of St. Paul who spread the word of the dying and reviving god Jesus Christ throughout ancient Palestine, Asia Minor, Greece, and Rome (c. 42-62 CE). Paul's vision of the figure of Jesus, the anointed son of God who dies to redeem humanity, was drawn from the earlier belief systems and informed the understanding of the scribes who would write the books which make up the Bible.
 
The religion of Christianity made standard a belief in an afterlife and set up an organized set of rituals by which an adherent could gain everlasting life. In so doing, the early Christians were simply following in the footsteps of the Sumerians, the Egyptians, the Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans all of whom had their own stylized rituals for the worship of their gods.
After the Christians, the Muslim interpreters of the Koran instituted their own rituals for understanding the supreme deity which, though vastly different in form from those of Christianity, Judaism or any of the older 'pagan' religions, served the same purpose as the rituals once practiced in worship of the Egyptian pantheon over 5,000 years ago: to provide human beings with the understanding that they are not alone in their struggles, suffering, and triumphs, that they can restrain their baser urges, and that death is not the end of existence. The religions of the ancient world provided answers to people's questions about life and death and, in this regard, are no different than those faiths practiced in the world today.

 
Conclusion
 
It may seem strange to a modern mind to equate magical solutions with reason but this is simply because, today, one has grown used to a completely different paradigm than the one which prevailed in ancient Egypt. This does not mean, however, that their understanding was misguided or `primitive' and the present one is sophisticated and correct. In the present, one believes that the model of the world and the universe collectively recognized as 'true' is the best model possible precisely because it is true.
 
According to this understanding, beliefs which differ from one's truth must be wrong but this is not necessarily so.
The scholar C.S. Lewis is best known for his fantasy works about the land of Narnia but he wrote many other books and articles on literature, society, religion, and culture. In his book The Discarded Image, Lewis argues that societies do not dismiss the old paradigms because the new ones are found to be more true but because the old belief system no longer suits a society's needs. The prevailing beliefs of the modern world which people consider more advanced than those of the past are not necessarily more true but only more acceptable. People in the present day accept these concepts as true because they fit their model of how the world works.

 
This was precisely the same way in which the ancient Egyptians saw their world. The model of the world as they understood it contained magic as an essential element and this was completely reasonable to them. All of life had come from the gods and these gods were not distant beings but friends and neighbors who inhabited the temple in the city, the trees by the stream, the river which gave life, the fields one plowed. Every civilization in any given era believes that it knows and operates on the basis of truth; if they did not, they would change.
 
When the model of the world changed for ancient Egypt c. 4th century CE - from a henotheistic/polytheistic understanding to the monotheism of Christianity - their understanding of 'truth' also changed and the kind of magic they recognized as imbuing their lives was exchanged for a new pardigm which fit their new understanding. This does not mean that new understanding was correct or more 'true' than what they had believed in for millenia; merely that it was now more acceptable.

***(There is alot more information from Joshua Mark.) below the Self Improvement section called Improve Yourself Spiritually.

Ancient Egyptian Religion - Ancient History Encyclopedia
https://www.ancient.eu/Egyptian_Religion
by Joshua J. Mark
published on 10 February 2017

Improve Yourself Spiritually

By David Dawn

To improve our self in order to move up to the next level of Godlyness. We can do this by doing two things. One, respect the life of all living things plants, bugs, animals, humans beings, all other earthly and universal beings, spiritual beings, etc., etc, etc. Two, think, act and be as positive as you can in every aspect of life. In every way possible. Think about everything that you do, say, and look at the different issues of and in our life. The key is that you must sencerely do this from your hart and soul. With the belief that this will be done. This is the belief of a lot of the American Indian tribes and a lot of the African tribes. The Kemet Religion is the religion that most major religions are based off of. It is the Universal Religion for all beings.

It is the different ways that man looks and thinks of God that makes all of the different religions today. Adding their own beliefs and wants into their religion.

The main reason why we are here on this earth is to improve ourselves spiritually. By doing what you need to do in order to move to the next spiritual level. When it comes time to leave this world, the only thing we can take with us is our state of mind. That is the emotional state that we have when we pass on. It determines whether we, go to heaven, hell or live in a state of limbo as a ghost. If we die being positive and excepting the life we led, then we will go to a heavenly place. If we are negative in life the we will go to our place called hell. If we are not ready to go then we will be gost on earth. Our emotions are the only thing that we take with us when it is time. Our emotions do and will determine our place in the after life.

This is why we must practice controlling your emotions because this is a world of thought. Which brings about cause and effect. Your action thoughts and words effects everyone around you. It can lead to people helping you achieve your goals or it can lead to people being against you achieving your goals. No one, had achieved their goals in life without the help of other people.

Take a really good look at your family history to see or learn, why you are living the way that you are living. You must be very honest with yourself. A lot of people looking into their past history refuses to see or talk about the negative parts of the past due to being ashamed or embarrassed of the past. Another excuse is that other family members will ridicule, have disapproval or say negative things about you or your family. Thus keeping the negative cycle going with in the family.

Even if some people in the family don't want to admit the truth, that does not mean that you cannot make the change needed with in you. Being honest with yourself makes all the difference in the world and it will, make a big difference in your world. Once you do this, start making a plan to change your negative cycles in life which is your bad habits or cycles, to positive habits. Staying with it will be hard. Due to changing habits and ways of living is a timely and difficult thing to do. You will loose friends and family will drift away from you. That is okay because you are living a much more positive life then what they are. This is a natural effect between one who is inproving them self and one who is in their comfort zone with a closed mind set. The key is staying with it to the end. When you stray from your plan its ok, you can start back the next day. Organize your priorities in order to achieve your short time and long time goals. Keep an open mind to new ideas that will help you achieve your goal. Be the type of person that you really want to be.

Through changing our subject matter being speech; meaning of words; thought pattern, we will restore the power that we were taught to not believe in and instill it back into our self. We all need to see this within our self. There are many people teaching this to the public right now as I speak and the listeners are changing them selves to be who they really want to be in life. We have the tools of the Kemet knowledge to use right now but we are blind with our every day social living and our narrow-minded beliefs to see it with in us and around us. There is good in everything and we need to find, see and speak on these positive issues in our lives.

You must believe that this is a world of mind over matter. Remember what the bible says, (With an ounce of belief you can move a mountain.) So believe in yourself in achieving the goals that you set for yourself. By doing this it will be done.

Egyptian Hieroglyph Symbols

 

Changing your negative Cycles
By David Dawn

Life is full of negative situations with the negativity of mother-nature, politics, jobs, the economy, and our pursuit of happiness. Even though you have the material things in life, most people find themselves empty of joy and happiness, empty with self-harmony. Every person of this world can come to the teachings of Kabbalah or the Kemet religion and find ways to improve their lives. No matter what your background, beliefs or childhood teachings are, you will improve yourself by being or change to being more open-minded in self-understanding and understanding the world around you in a more positive state of mind. Different paths will open up to you by giving you a different perspective of everything around you with more meaning and self-fulfillment.

In a person’s quest to improve themselves, they get caught up in trying to find their fulfillment in material things like a house, better car, job, etc., etc., etc. It is a feeling of fulfillment in joy, happiness, and harmony in the family and the social environment, which is the true feeling of a person who is trying to find it in achieving material things. Your thoughts need to be on improving your inter-self. It is about getting rid of the negative thinking and energy and changing it to positive thinking and energy in every aspect in your life. 

A lot of mentally conquered people find themselves not motivated to succeed in life, due to one, some or all of the following:

• self-blame
• self-negativity
• self-alienation
• Self-hatred
• loss of self-confidence

 These things really get implanted in to the subconscious mind. The conquerors call it being brain washed. This complex will lead to hating yourself and society because you think the whole world is like that. 

  Now in these days we have these doctors feeding everybody pills and giving people treatment for the systems. When the cause is being evaluated by the elite, media and doctors. The root of the problem is the less money you make and the more self-initiated problems a individual will have. This goes for all races and classes with in our society. This is the mental side of the economical and social control which is a form of brain washing. The Doctors call it economical weathering.

  People need to:
• Use our mind and think for yourself.
• Do not rely on others to make a decision in your life.
• Do your own research and make a decision.
• Stop looking to other races to do it for you.
• Demand accountability from our leaders, preachers, teachers, politicians, and entertainers.
• Really try to be a first class citizen, neighbor, consumer and parent.
• Before you laugh at jokes, ask yourself if the jokes on you or your folks.
• Demand more from lyrics and videos.
• Demand a return on your investment.
• You need be outraged of injustice, wherever you find it.
• Realize, you are the center of your own control.
• Realize, you are a self-appointed leader.
• Stop looking outside of our self for validation.
• Change the power relationship between the ones in charge and us in order to be equal. We must challenge any group who holds us back in life.
• Teach and educate our middle and lower classes to what is really going on in our society.

Being as positive as much as you can in every aspect of life is a big part in finding your heaven in the after life. People need to take control of their own life, quit being spoiled, jealous, greedy and quit wanting everything right now. The good things in life takes time. Change the negative cycles that are in your life. Choose from above and use it in your life to better it.

When a person dies. The only thing that they can take with them is their emotions. I believe that if you have negative toughts of life in general. Then you will live in a world of negative spirits. This might be your hell depending on your negativity. If you die being positive and accepting your transcension then you will live with good spirits. This might be your heaven depending on your positive state of mind. If you are not ready to die and you feel that you have unfinished work to do. Then you will be a gost on earth until you are ready to make your transcension.

Take a really good look at your family history to see or learn, why you are living the way that you are living and be very honest with yourself. A lot of people looking into their past history refuses to see or talk about the negative parts of the past due to being ashamed or embarrassed of what other family members will ridicule, have disapproval or say negative things about you or your family. Thus keeping the negative cycle going with in the family. Even if some people in the family don't want to admit the truth, that does not mean that you can not make the change needed with in you. Being honest with yourself makes all the difference in the world or it will, make a big difference in your world. Once you do this make a plan to change your negative cycles in life which is your bad habits or cycles, to positive habits. Staying with it to the end.When you stray from your plan its ok, you can start back the next day. Organize your priorities in order to achieve your short time and longtime goals. Keep an open mind to new ideas that will help you achieve your goal.

You must believe that this is a world of mind over matter. Remember what the bible says, (With an ounce of belief you can move a mountain.) So believe in yourself in achieving the goals that you set for yourself.

Endurance, determination and the ability to follow your true honest loving heart is the key to mental, physical and spiritual self-improvement.

Scientist Claim There is a God Gene

Scientist claim that the Fe/Mat 2 gene is equal to the God gene. It releases the Mon/ie/o gene in the synapse of the brain. Science shows that when a person is using faith or meditation in a brain scan the frontal lobe gets a lot of activity and the periatal lobe quiets down to lose track of our surroundings. This also opens the faith and the beliefs to the cosmos and nature. Scientists know that there is a lot of unknowns with the brain which holds the idea that anything is possible. Scientists claim that the placebo effect along with the Fe/Mat/TO gene in a state of meditation can cause miracles to happen within and outside of the human body. Scientists at the LHC are looking for the Higgs which is the Boson particular God particle which connects everything in the universe. Albert Einstein claims that the fundamental law of physics is God.

Teachings of the Kemet Civilization

By: David Dawn

When a person dies. The only thing that they can take with them is their emotions. I believe that if you have negative toughts of life in general. Then you will live in a world of negative spirits. This might be your hell depending on your negativity. If you die being positive and accepting your transcension then you will live with good spirits. This might be your heaven depending on your positive state of mind. If you are not ready to die and you feel that you have unfinished work to do. Then you will be a gost on earth until you are ready to make your transcension.

We address only the very basic teachings of the Kemet religion because it calls for the people who want to learn to be purified mentally, physically and socially of as much negative habits as possible to start practicing the true Kemet way of life. A lot of people get in to this and start using their power for negative things. Then they wonder why carma makes a full cycle and they find themself living a negative life. They don't realize that it has a rippling effect on to friends and their family.

As long as a person is doing their best to live a positive life (and it does not matter what religion or life style a person claims), they will be living their life in-line with the very basic way of the Kemet religion.

We are here to live with nature and the cosmos on this earth. We are not here to be a part of a group of cancerous beings living on this earth.

To reach the seven levels of heaven, you must be pure in mind, body and soul. That is very important to have with in you. Before you start reaching the different levels of spirituality and using the cosmos for your own personal needs.

As the Kemet philosophy states the past, present and future is one because these time periods is fused together in life. That is why we need to learn how to stop the negative patterns, habits and cycles that are within our life. We can start this by knowing our true family history and being very honest with ourself. Only then we will see what is needed to be changed to improve our life.

Knowledge is very important in life and we are here to educate the people of the world about a different way of thinking about religious teachings.

This is looking at religion from modern mans ancient ancestors' point of view, which was written out of our modern day history. We are not here to push you to change your religion or any of your beliefs.

We want you to be more knowledgeable of the different theories of creation and religion.

There are a lot of scientists who believe in the big bang theory and this was the beginning of consciousness and thought with the positive electromagnetic energy that flowed in the big bang. This is where religion and science meets.

It is about getting rid of the negative thinking and energy and changing it to positive thinking and energy in every aspect in your life. This wisdom was known to Abraham, passed down to Moses, and known to Jesus. The Zohar written by Rabbi Shimon Bar Yoghai (700CE), originally written in Arabic about two thousand years ago, is a commentary to the Torah. This is the five books of testimony of Moses. The Zohar is a blueprint of human existence, including, where we come from, why we are here, etc., etc., etc.

All of us are ruled by patterns of thoughts, emotions, and actions which brings positive or negative results. Be it mentally, physically, socially, or financially into your lives. The Zohar and Kemet Religion teach us how to deal with this and change this into positive thought patterns that will change our lives in every aspect.

The great thinkers of the past; Pythagoras, Plato, and the great scientist Sir Isaac Newton, all studied the Zohar. Kabbalah can, and will, enhance the spiritual experience of anyone from any walk of life through being used as a tool of mental guidance. This is a universal wisdom to be used by anyone to enhance their lives. People need to realize that you can still be who you are. This means to keep your religion, faith, and beliefs but use this as a tool to enrich you as an individual. This is what unites us all spiritually.

The positive force that is within us is called the light because it is a physical expression of what the force is like. The Light is the life line to the cosmos. It makes you feel good. It is a feeling of comfort, knowing everything is okay and will work out to your benefit, or your best interest. It is about the law of cause and effect. Nothing is happening by chance because something had caused the effect. Like something in the past which creates the thought of the present and the thought of the future.The past, present and future is conected to time. The time spent thinking and living in and of these 3 time spands. Scientist claim the fact that the higher a person is away from the ground on earth, the faster time will be. Example, When in outer space. Time moves faster then when on earth. Thus moving a person in to time. This is to show people that there are so many different things can happen dealing with the cosmos.

There are two realms of reality, the illusions in the world of the five senses and the spiritual world around us. We can choose the path of light which is happiness and fulfillment, or the path of darkness which is the attraction of negative things.

I have come up with a scientific name, in which I feel it breaks down the American and European definition for the creator, the universal force or God. Which is PSCIEE, that sounds like sy/ee. PSCIEE stands for Positive Super Conscious Intelligence of Electromagnetic Energy. 

All religions see God as being with in you, all around you and in all living things as conscious Intelligence. Yet, the they refuse to see this in a scientific way. Even the scientist of today knows that in the dark matter of the universe and in the brain there is a conscious intelligence that occupies this space, this is a scientific fact.

All of my life I have been looking for a religion that makes since to me and that does not have any man-made rules. The Kemet Religion is the closest thing that I have found to date. All other religions are an off-shoot of the Kemet religion. Other religions took the basic thought of religion from the Kemet's. Then applied their own thoughts and beliefs to create their own religion. With the Kemet religion in our web-site we do relate science with religion by teaching at this point of time the very basic methods of the technology of the soul and spirit binding together with nature and the cosmos. We are here to be one with nature and the cosmos on this earth. We are not here just being a part of a group of cancerous beings living on this earth.

Kemets God and Religion

One more time. This is looking at religion from modern mans ancient ancestors' point of view, which was written out of our modern day history. We are not here to push you to change your religion or any of your beliefs. We are here to educate people to have an open mind.

In the Bible it said, "with an ounce of faith we can move a mountain". I found sayings from the Kemet Civilization that states, "We can be as free as we really want to be. Believe and live, for everything you need to make any change that you want, is already within you. We need to at least understand the religion of our ancient ancestors. Even if we do not believe in our ancestors religion, we will at least have the knowledge of modern day man's ancient religion. The religion of the Kemet people was the God of Ethiopia. They gave us the father and son and Holy Ghost which did lead to the Roman Catholic religion. The Judaism, Christian and Muslim religions came much later from the great universities libraries in Timbuktu, Alexandria and other universities of that time.

Remember;

The Kemet Civilization religion believes that God sees and hears through us and that this is a world of thought. That is why any type of prayer is so strong because the energy of that thought is amplified in that belief. People create God through thought and in that thought we create images of what we feel god should be. We are the chosen people because we choose god. In other words the concept is, free people choose their relationship with the creator. Free people create god in their own image and thus we have many different religions around the world. We are only souls that inhabit thought worlds. Anyone who can grasp what is about to be discussed is getting a glimpse into his own future. For this is the destiny of every soul everywhere, to be like Jesus, the great Yogi-Christ of India, and the ascended Masters, all of whom exhibit the same awareness through identification with the omnipresent I AM consciousness.

The Kemet religion believed that God or our Creator or as the people of Kemet called him Natru is from man's thought. Man created our Creator or Natru through thought and in that thought we created the images of what we feel our Creator should be with his feelings and how he should react. When we realize that Natru or the Creator is in every cell of your body we become Godly and because of that we are able to do any thing that Asar, Jesus, any prophet and spiritual leader have done. Remember we can only be taught in the right way, the positive way of living our life.

The people of America and Europe was taught to believe that the internal self as we know it today is just the present moment that is full of sin and most of the people accept and believe it is our only reality. This is what most religions teach their people. It is what we are taught to feel from our surroundings as a baby through adulthood. The way that we are taught as a child introduces the negative thought patterns that we see with in our society today.

This is the great secret of our ancient ancestors. The Kemet people were taught to believe that from the day of birth on to this world we are pure in mind and spirit. The internal self is the past, present and future or all three is in one, they are simultaneous because we are living these three time periods at the same time. The belief of our Creator seeing, feeling and hearing through us and our body is the temple of our Creator. The energy of our Creator flowing through us gives us the power to do any thing we really wish to do.

Through changing our subject matter being speech; meaning of words; thought pattern, we will restore the power that we were taught to not believe in and instill it back into our self. We all need to see this within our self. There are many people teaching this to the public right now as I speak and the listeners are changing them selves to be who they really want to be in life. We have the tools of the Kemet knowledge to use right now but we are blind with our every day social living and our narrow-minded beliefs to see it with in us and around us. There is good in everything and we need to find, see and speak on these positive issues in our lives.

 
This is a world of mind over matter. So, if you really think of this day and night. You will be free
from the self-ego bars of negative thought!
 
 
Ancient Egyptian/Kemet Religion
 
Ancient Egyptian Religion - Ancient History Encyclopedia
https://www.ancient.eu/Egyptian_Religion
by Joshua J. Mark
published on 10 February 2017

Definition. Egyptian religion was a combination of beliefs and practices which, in the modern day, would include magic, mythology, science, medicine, psychiatry, spiritualism, herbology, as well as the modern understanding of ' religion ' as belief in a higher power and a life after death.
 
The first written records of Egyptian religious practice come from around 3400 BCE in the Predynastic Period in Egypt (c.6000-c.3150 BCE). Deities such as Isis, Osiris, Ptah, Hathor, Atum, Set, Nephthys, and Horus were already established as potent forces to be recognized fairly early on. The Egyptian Creation Myth is similar to the beginning of the Mesopotamian story in that originally there was only chaotic, slow-swirling waters. This ocean was without bounds, depthless, and silent until, upon its surface, there rose a hill of earth (known as the ben-ben, the primordial mound, which, it is thought, the pyramids symbolize) and the great god Atum (the sun) stood upon the ben-ben and spoke, giving birth to the god Shu (of the air), the goddess Tefnut (of moisture), the god Geb (of earth), and the goddess Nut (of sky). Alongside Atum stood Heka, the personification of magic, and magic (heka) gave birth to the universe.
 
While polytheism means the worship of many gods, henotheism means the worship of one god in many forms. This shift in understanding was extremely rare in the ancient world, and the goddess Isis and god Amun of Egypt are probably the best examples of the complete ascendancy of a deity from one-among-many to the supreme creator and sustainer of the universe recognized in different forms.
 
In ancient times, religion was indistinguishable from what is known as 'mythology' in the present day and consisted of regular rituals based on a belief in higher supernatural entities who created and continued to maintain the world and surrounding cosmos. Theses entities were anthropomorphic and behaved in ways which mirrored the values of the culture closely (as in Egypt) or sometimes engaged in acts antithetical to those values (as one sees with the gods of Greece). Religion, then and now, concerns itself with the spiritual aspect of the human condition, gods and goddesses (or a single personal god or goddess), the creation of the world, a human being's place in the world, life after death, eternity, and how to escape from suffering in this world or in the next; and every nation has created its own god in its own image and resemblance. The Greek philosopher Xenophanes of Colophon (c. 570-478 BCE) once wrote:
 
One of the Egyptian gods who formed the triad of Memphis (along with his spouse Sekhmet and daughter Nefertum), Ptah was the personification of creation. In essence, Ptah was perceived as the ultimate creator who not only fashioned the universe but also ‘breathed life’ into the entities populating the world. Suffice it to say, Ptah was a widely popular god in ancient Egypt – so much so that the very name Egypt derived from Greek Aigyptos, was originally borrowed from Amarna Hikuptah, corresponding to Egyptian Ha(t)-ka-ptah or ‘temple of the soul of Ptah’, the god’s religious sanctuary in Memphis.
Ptah was also hailed as the ‘self-created one’, thus suggesting that his role in specific creation as opposed to the all-encompassing nature of the aforementioned Amun-Ra. To that end, Ptah was regarded as the patron deity of sculptors, painters, builders, and other artisans. This allusion to his ‘master architect’ status possibly also played a part in inspiring a few aspects of Christian theology and Masonic elements.

 
As for his physical nature, Ptah was often depicted as a mummified bearded man with green skin. His arms were kept free to hold a scepter, and his overall profile contained the three powerful symbols of ancient Egyptian religion:  the Was scepter, the sign of life, Ankh, and the Djed pillar. These motifs suggested the combined essence of his creative prowess, – the power, life-giving ability, and stability.
 
Religion in ancient Egypt was fully integrated into the people's daily lives. The gods were present at one's birth, throughout one's life, in the transition from earthly life to the eternal, and continued their care for the soul in the afterlife of the Field of Reeds. The spiritual world was ever present in the physical world and this understanding was symbolized through images in art, architecture, in amulets, statuary, and the objects used by nobility and clergy in the performance of their duties.
 
Ancient India
 
This principle of order is also paramount in the world's oldest religion still being practiced today: Hinduism (known to adherents as Sanatan Dharma, 'Eternal Order'). Although often viewed as a polytheistic faith, Hinduism is actually henotheistic. There is only one supreme god in Hinduism, Brahma, and all other deities are his aspects and reflections. Since Brahma is too immense a concept for the human mind to comprehend, he presents himself in the many different versions of himself which people recognize as deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, and the many others. The Hindu belief system includes 330 million gods and these range from those who are known at a national level (such as Krishna) to lesser-known local deities.
 
The primary understanding of Hinduism is that there is an order to the universe and every individual has a specific place in that order. Each person on the planet has a duty (dharma) which only they can perform. If one acts rightly (karma) in the performance of that duty, then one is rewarded by moving closer to the supreme being and eventually becoming one with god; if one does not, then one is reincarnated as many times as it takes to finally understand how to live and draw closer to union with the supreme soul.
 
This belief was carried over by Siddhartha Gautama when he became the Buddha and founded the religion known as Buddhism. In Buddhism, however, one is not seeking union with a god but with one's higher nature as one leaves behind the illusions of the world which generate suffering and cloud the mind with the fear of loss and death. Buddhism became so popular that it traveled from India to China where it enjoyed equal success. 
 
Ancient China
 
In ancient China, religion is thought to have developed as early as c. 4500 BCE as evidenced by designs on ceramics found at the Neolithic site of Banpo Village. This early belief structure may have been a mix of animism and mythology as these images include recognizable animals and pig-dragons, precursors to the famous Chinese dragon.
By the time of the Xia Dynasty (2070-1600 BCE), there were many anthropomorphic gods worshiped with a chief god, Shangti, presiding over all. This belief continued, with modifications, during the period of the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) which developed the practice of ancestor worship.

 
The people believed that Shangti had so many responsibilities that he had become too busy to handle their needs. It was thought that, when a person died, they went to live with the gods and became intermediaries between the people and those gods. Ancestor worship influenced the two great Chinese belief systems of Confucianism and Taoism, both of which made ancestor worship core tenets of their practices. In time, Shangti was replaced with the concept of Tian (heaven), a paradise where the dead would reside eternally in peace.
 
In order to pass from one's earthly life into heaven, one had to cross the bridge of forgetfulness over an abyss and, after looking back on one's life for the last time, drink from a cup which purged all memory. At the bridge, one was either judged worthy of heaven - and so passed on - or unworthy - and slipped from the bridge into the abyss to be swallowed up in hell. Other versions of this same scenario claim the soul was reincarnated after drinking from the cup. Either way, the living were expected to remember the dead who had passed over the bridge to the other side and to honor their memory.
Religion in Mesoamerica

 
Remembrance of the dead and the part they still play in the lives of those on earth was an important component of all ancient religions including the belief system of the Maya. The gods were involved in every aspect of the life of the Maya. As with other cultures, there were many different deities (over 250), all of whom had their own special sphere of influence. They controlled the weather, the harvest, they dictated one’s mate, presided over every birth, and were present at one’s death.
 
The Mayan afterlife was similar to the Mesopotamian in that it was a dark and dreary place, but the Maya imagined an even worse fate where one was constantly under threat of attack or deception by the demon lords who inhabited the underworld (known as Xibalba or Metnal). The dread of the journey through Xibalba was such a potent cultural force that the Maya are the only known ancient culture to honor a goddess of suicide (Ixtab) because suicides were thought to bypass Xibalba and go straight to paradise (as did those who died in childbirth or in battle). The Maya believed in the cyclical nature of life, that all things which seem to die simply are transformed, and considered human life just another part of the kind of pattern they saw all around them in nature. They felt death was a natural progression after life and feared the very unnatural possibility that the dead could return to haunt the living.
 
Religion (from the Latin Religio, meaning 'restraint,' or Relegere, according to Cicero, meaning 'to repeat, to read again,' or, most likely, Religionem, 'to show respect for what is sacred') is an organized system of beliefs and practices revolving around, or leading to, a transcendent spiritual experience. There is no culture recorded in human history which has not practiced some form of religion.
 
In ancient times, religion was indistinguishable from what is known as 'mythology' in the present day and consisted of regular rituals based on a belief in higher supernatural entities who created and continued to maintain the world and surrounding cosmos. Theses entities were anthropomorphic and behaved in ways which mirrored the values of the culture closely (as in Egypt) or sometimes engaged in acts antithetical to those values (as one sees with the gods of Greece). Religion, then and now, concerns itself with the spiritual aspect of the human condition, gods and goddesses (or a single personal god or goddess), the creation of the world, a human being's place in the world, life after death, eternity, and how to escape from suffering in this world or in the next; and every nation has created its own god in its own image and resemblance. The Greek philosopher Xenophanes of Colophon (c. 570-478 BCE) once wrote:
 
Mortals suppose that the gods are born and have clothes and voices and shapes like their own. But if oxen, horses and lions had hands or could paint with their hands and fashion works as men do, horses would paint horse-like images of gods and oxen oxen-like ones, and each would fashion bodies like their own. The Ethiopians consider the gods flat-nosed and black; the Thracians blue-eyed and red-haired.
 
Xenophanes believed there was "one god, among gods and men the greatest, not at all like mortals in body or mind" but he was in the minority. Monotheism did not make sense to the ancient people aside from the visionaries and prophets of Judaism. Most people, at least as far as can be discerned from the written and archaeological record, believed in many gods, each of whom had a special sphere of influence. In one's personal life there is not just one other person who provides for one's needs; one interacts with many different kinds of people in order to achieve wholeness and maintain a living.
In the course of one's life in the present day, one will interact with one's parents, siblings, teachers, friends, lovers, employers, doctors, gas station attendants, plumbers, politicians, veterinarians, and so on. No one single person can fill all these roles or supply all of an individual's needs - just as it was in ancient times.

 
In this same way, the ancient people felt that no single god could possibly take care of all the needs of an individual. Just as one would not go to a plumber with one's sick dog, one would not go to a god of war with a problem concerning love. If one were suffering heartbreak, one went to the goddess of love; if one wanted to win at combat, only then would one consult the god of war.
 
The many gods of the religions of the ancient world fulfilled this function as specialists in their respective areas. In some cultures, a certain god or goddess would become so popular that he or she would transcend the cultural understanding of multiplicity and assume a position so powerful and all-encompassing as to almost transform a polytheistic culture to henotheistic.
 
While polytheism means the worship of many gods, henotheism means the worship of one god in many forms. This shift in understanding was extremely rare in the ancient world, and the goddess Isis and god Amun of Egypt are probably the best examples of the complete ascendancy of a deity from one-among-many to the supreme creator and sustainer of the universe recognized in different forms.
 
As noted, every ancient culture practiced some form of religion, but where religion began cannot be pinpointed with any certainty. The argument over whether Mesopotamian religion inspired that of the Egyptians has gone on for over a century now and is no closer to being resolved than when it began. It is most probable that every culture developed its own belief in supernatural entities to explain natural phenomena (day and night, the seasons) or to help make sense of their lives and the uncertain state humans find themselves in daily.
 
While it may be an interesting exercise in cultural exchange to attempt tracing the origins of religion, it does not seem a very worthwhile use of one's time, when it seems fairly clear that the religious impulse is simply a part of the human condition and different cultures in different parts of the world could have come to the same conclusions about the meaning of life independently.
 
Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia
 
As with many cultural advancements and inventions, the 'cradle of civilization' Mesopotamia has been cited as the birthplace of religion. When religion developed in Mesopotamia is unknown, but the first written records of religious practice date to c. 3500 BCE from Sumer. Mesopotamian religious beliefs held that human beings were co-workers with the gods and labored with them and for them to hold back the forces of chaos which had been checked by the supreme deities at the beginning of time. Order was created out of chaos by the gods and one of the most popular myths illustrating this principle told of the great god Marduk who defeated Tiamat and the forces of chaos to create the world. Historian D. Brendan Nagle writes:
 
Despite the gods' apparent victory, there was no guarantee that the forces of chaos might not recover their strength and overturn the orderly creation of the gods. Gods and humans alike were involved in the perpetual struggle to restrain the powers of chaos, and they each had their own role to play in this dramatic battle. The responsibility of the dwellers of Mesopotamian cities was to provide the gods with everything they needed to run the world. (11)
 
Humans were created, in fact, for this very purpose: to work with and for the gods toward a mutually beneficial end. The claim of some historians that the Mesopotamians were slaves to their gods is untenable because it is quite clear that the people understood their position as co-workers. The gods repaid humans for their service by taking care of their daily needs in life (such as supplying them with beer, the drink of the gods) and maintaining the world in which they lived. These gods intimately knew the needs of the people because they were not distant entities who lived in the heavens but dwelt in homes on earth built for them by their people; these homes were the temples which were raised in every Mesopotamian city.
 
Temple complexes, dominated by the towering ziggurat, were considered the literal homes of the gods and their statues were fed, bathed, and clothed daily as the priests and priestesses cared for them as one would a king or queen. In the case of Marduk, for example, his statue was carried out of his temple during the festival honoring him and through the city of Babylon so that he could appreciate its beauty while enjoying the fresh air and sunshine.
 
Inanna was another powerful deity who was greatly revered as the goddess of love, sex, and war, and whose priests and priestesses cared for her statue and temple faithfully. Inanna is considered one the earliest examples of the dying-and-reviving god figure who goes down into the underworld and returns to life, bringing fertility and abundance to the land. She was so popular her worship spread across all of Mesopotamia from the southern region of Sumer. She became Ishtar of the Akkadians (and later the Assyrians), Astarte of the Phoenicians, Sauska of the Hurrians-Hittites, and was associated with Aphrodite of the Greeks, Isis of the Egyptians, and Venus of the Romans.
 
The temples were the center of the city's life throughout Mesopotamian history from the Akkadian Empire (c. 2334-2150 BCE) to the Assyrian (c. 1813-612 BCE) and afterwards. The temple served in multiple capacities: the clergy dispensed grain and surplus goods to the poor, counseled those in need, provided medical services, and sponsored the grand festivals which honored the gods. Although the gods took great care of humans while they lived, the Mesopotamian afterlife was a dreary underworld, located beneath the far mountains, where souls drank stale water from puddles and ate dust for eternity in the 'land of no return.' This bleak view of their eternal home was markedly different from that of the Egyptians.
 
Religion in Egypt
 
Egyptian religion was similar to Mesopotamian belief, however, in that human beings were co-workers with the gods to maintain order. The principle of harmony (known to the Egyptians as ma'at) was of the highest importance in Egyptian life (and in the afterlife), and their religion was fully integrated into every aspect of existence. Egyptian religion was a combination of magic, mythology, science, medicine, psychiatry, spiritualism, herbology, as well as the modern understanding of 'religion' as belief in a higher power and a life after death. The gods were the friends of human beings and sought only the best for them by providing them with the most perfect of all lands to live in and an eternal home to enjoy when their lives on earth were done.
 
The first written records of Egyptian religious practice come from around 3400 BCE in the Predynastic Period in Egypt (c.6000-c.3150 BCE). Deities such as Isis, Osiris, Ptah, Hathor, Atum, Set, Nephthys, and Horus were already established as potent forces to be recognized fairly early on. The Egyptian Creation Myth is similar to the beginning of the Mesopotamian story in that originally there was only chaotic, slow-swirling waters. This ocean was without bounds, depthless, and silent until, upon its surface, there rose a hill of earth (known as the ben-ben, the primordial mound, which, it is thought, the pyramids symbolize) and the great god Atum (the sun) stood upon the ben-ben and spoke, giving birth to the god Shu (of the air), the goddess Tefnut (of moisture), the god Geb (of earth), and the goddess Nut (of sky). Alongside Atum stood Heka, the personification of magic, and magic (heka) gave birth to the universe.
 
Atum had intended Nut as his bride but she fell in love with Geb. Angry with the lovers, Atum separated them by stretching Nut across the sky high away from Geb on the earth. Although the lovers were separated during the day, they came together at night and Nut bore three sons, Osiris, Set, and Horus, and two daughters, Isis and Nephthys.
Osiris, as eldest, was announced as 'Lord of all the Earth’ when he was born and was given his sister Isis as a wife. Set, consumed by jealousy, hated his brother and killed him to assume the throne. Isis then embalmed her husband's body and, with powerful charms, resurrected Osiris who returned from the dead to bring life to the people of Egypt. Osiris later served as the Supreme Judge of the souls of the dead in the Hall of Truth and, by weighing the heart of the soul in the balances, decided who was granted eternal life.

 
The Egyptian afterlife was known as the Field of Reeds and was a mirror-image of life on earth down to one's favorite tree and stream and dog. Those that one loved in life would either be waiting when one arrived or would follow after. The Egyptians viewed earthly existence as simply one part of an eternal journey and were so concerned about passing easily to the next phase that they created their elaborate tombs (the pyramids), temples, and funerary inscriptions (the Pyramid Texts, Coffin Texts, and The Egyptian Book of the Dead) to help the soul's passage from this world to the next.
 
The gods cared for one after death just as they had in life from the beginning of time. The goddess Qebhet brought water to the thirsty souls in the land of the dead and other goddesses such as Serket and Nephthys cared for and protected the souls as they journeyed to the Field of Reeds. An ancient Egyptian understood that, from birth to death and even after death, the universe had been ordered by the gods and everyone had a place in that order.
 
Religion in China & India
 
This principle of order is also paramount in the world's oldest religion still being practiced today: Hinduism (known to adherents as Sanatan Dharma, 'Eternal Order'). Although often viewed as a polytheistic faith, Hinduism is actually henotheistic. There is only one supreme god in Hinduism, Brahma, and all other deities are his aspects and reflections. Since Brahma is too immense a concept for the human mind to comprehend, he presents himself in the many different versions of himself which people recognize as deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, and the many others. The Hindu belief system includes 330 million gods and these range from those who are known at a national level (such as Krishna) to lesser-known local deities.
 
The primary understanding of Hinduism is that there is an order to the universe and every individual has a specific place in that order. Each person on the planet has a duty (dharma) which only they can perform. If one acts rightly (karma) in the performance of that duty, then one is rewarded by moving closer to the supreme being and eventually becoming one with god; if one does not, then one is reincarnated as many times as it takes to finally understand how to live and draw closer to union with the supreme soul.
 
This belief was carried over by Siddhartha Gautama when he became the Buddha and founded the religion known as Buddhism. In Buddhism, however, one is not seeking union with a god but with one's higher nature as one leaves behind the illusions of the world which generate suffering and cloud the mind with the fear of loss and death. Buddhism became so popular that it traveled from India to China where it enjoyed equal success. 
 
In ancient China, religion is thought to have developed as early as c. 4500 BCE as evidenced by designs on ceramics found at the Neolithic site of Banpo Village. This early belief structure may have been a mix of animism and mythology as these images include recognizable animals and pig-dragons, precursors to the famous Chinese dragon.
 
By the time of the Xia Dynasty (2070-1600 BCE), there were many anthropomorphic gods worshiped with a chief god, Shangti, presiding over all. This belief continued, with modifications, during the period of the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) which developed the practice of ancestor worship.
 
The people believed that Shangti had so many responsibilities that he had become too busy to handle their needs. It was thought that, when a person died, they went to live with the gods and became intermediaries between the people and those gods. Ancestor worship influenced the two great Chinese belief systems of Confucianism and Taoism, both of which made ancestor worship core tenets of their practices. In time, Shangti was replaced with the concept of Tian (heaven), a paradise where the dead would reside eternally in peace.
 
In order to pass from one's earthly life into heaven, one had to cross the bridge of forgetfulness over an abyss and, after looking back on one's life for the last time, drink from a cup which purged all memory. At the bridge, one was either judged worthy of heaven - and so passed on - or unworthy - and slipped from the bridge into the abyss to be swallowed up in hell. Other versions of this same scenario claim the soul was reincarnated after drinking from the cup. Either way, the living were expected to remember the dead who had passed over the bridge to the other side and to honor their memory.
 
Religion in Mesoamerica
 
Remembrance of the dead and the part they still play in the lives of those on earth was an important component of all ancient religions including the belief system of the Maya. The gods were involved in every aspect of the life of the Maya. As with other cultures, there were many different deities (over 250), all of whom had their own special sphere of influence. They controlled the weather, the harvest, they dictated one’s mate, presided over every birth, and were present at one’s death.
 
The Mayan afterlife was similar to the Mesopotamian in that it was a dark and dreary place, but the Maya imagined an even worse fate where one was constantly under threat of attack or deception by the demon lords who inhabited the underworld (known as Xibalba or Metnal). The dread of the journey through Xibalba was such a potent cultural force that the Maya are the only known ancient culture to honor a goddess of suicide (Ixtab) because suicides were thought to bypass Xibalba and go straight to paradise (as did those who died in childbirth or in battle). The Maya believed in the cyclical nature of life, that all things which seem to die simply are transformed, and considered human life just another part of the kind of pattern they saw all around them in nature. They felt death was a natural progression after life and feared the very unnatural possibility that the dead could return to haunt the living.
 
It was possible that a person would hang on to life for any of a number of reasons (the chief being improper burial), and so ceremonies were performed to remember the dead and honor their spirit. This belief was also held by Mesoamerican cultures other than the Maya such as the Aztec and Tarascan. In time, it developed into the holiday known today as The Day of the Dead (El Dia de los Muertos), in which people celebrate the lives of those who have passed on and remember their names.
It was not only people who were to be remembered and honored, however, but also a very important deity scholars refer to as the Maize God. The Maize god is a dying-and-reviving god figure in the form of Hun Hunahpu who was killed by the Lords of Xibalba, brought back to life by his sons, the Hero Twins, and emerges from the underworld as corn. The 'Tonsured' Maize God or 'Foliated' Maize God are common images found in Maya iconography. He is always pictured as eternally young and handsome with an elongated head like a corncob, long, flowing hair like corn silk, and ornamented with jade to symbolize the corn stalk. He was considered so important by the Maya that mothers would bind the heads of their young sons to flatten the forehead and elongate their heads to resemble him.

 
The Maize God remained an important deity to the Maya even when eclipsed by the greatest and most popular of the gods Gucumatz (also known as Kukulcan and Quetzalcoatl) whose great pyramid at Chichen Itza is still visited by millions of people every year in the present day. On the twin equinoxes of every year, the sun casts a shadow on the stairs of the pyramid structure which seems to resemble a great serpent descending from the top to the bottom; this is thought to be the great Kukulcan returning from the heavens to earth to impart his blessings. Even today, people gather at Chichen Itza to witness this event at the equinoxes and to remember the past and hope for the future.
 
Greek & Roman Religion
 
The importance of remembrance of the dead as part of one's religious devotions was integral to the beliefs of the Greeks as well. Continued remembrance of the dead by the living kept the soul of the deceased alive in the afterlife. The Greeks, like the other cultures mentioned, believed in many gods who often cared for their human charges but, just as often, pursued their own pleasure.
 
The capricious nature of the gods may have contributed to the development of philosophy in Greece as philosophy can only develop in a culture where religion is not providing for the people's spiritual needs. Plato consistently criticized the Greek concept of the gods and Critias claimed they were simply created by men to control other men. Xenophanes, as noted above, claimed the Greek view was completely wrong and God was unimaginable.
 
Still, to the majority of the Greeks - and central to the function of society -  the gods were to be honored and so were those who had passed over into their realm. Just because a person was no longer living on earth did not mean that person was to be forgotten any more than one would forget to honor the invisible gods. As with other ancient cultures, religion in Greece was fully integrated into one's daily life and routine.
 
The Greeks consulted the gods on matters ranging from affairs of state to personal decisions regarding love, marriage, or one's job. An ancient story tells of how the writer Xenophon (430 - c. 354 BCE) went to Socrates asking whether the philosopher thought he should join the army of Cyrus the Younger on campaign to Persia. Socrates sent him to ask the question of the god at Delphi. Instead of asking his original question, Xenophon asked the god of Delphi which of the many gods was best to court favor with to ensure a successful venture and safe return. He appears to have gotten the correct answer since he survived the disastrous campaign of Cyrus and not only returned to Athens but saved the bulk of the army.
 
The religion of Rome followed the same paradigm as that of Greece. The Roman religion most likely began as a kind of animism and developed as they came into contact with other cultures. The Greeks had the most significant impact on Roman religion, and many of the Roman gods are simply Greek deities with Roman names and slightly altered attributes.
 
In Rome, the worship of the gods was intimately tied to affairs of state and the stability of the society was thought to rest on how well the people revered the gods and participated in the rituals which honored them. The Vestal Virgins are one famous example of this belief in that these women were counted on to maintain the vows they had taken and perform their duties responsibly in order to continually honor Vesta and all the goddess gave to the people.
 
Although the Romans had imported their primary gods from Greece, once the Roman religion was established and linked to the welfare of the state, no foreign gods were welcomed. When worship of the popular Egyptian goddess Isis was brought to Rome, Emperor Augustus forbade any temples to be built in her honor or public rites observed in her worship because he felt such attention paid to a foreign deity would undermine the authority of the government and established religious beliefs. To the Romans, the gods had created everything according to their will and maintained the universe in the best way possible and a human being was obligated to show them honor for their gifts.
 
This was true not only for the 'major' gods of the Roman pantheon but also for the spirits of the home. The penates were earth spirits of the pantry who kept one's home safe and harmonious. One was expected to be thankful for their efforts and remember them upon entering or leaving one's house. Statues of the penates were taken out of the cupboard and set on the table during meals to honor them, and sacrifices were left by the hearth for their enjoyment. If one were diligent in appreciating their efforts, one was rewarded with continued health and happiness and, if one forgot them, one suffered for such ingratitude. Although the religions of other cultures did not have precisely these same kinds of spirits, the recognition of spirits of place - and especially the home - was common.
 
Common Themes in Ancient Religion & Their Continuance
 
The religions of the ancient world shared many of the same patterns with each other even though the cultures may never have had any contact with each other. The spiritual iconography of the Mayan and Egyptian pyramids has been recognized since the Maya were first brought to the world's attention by John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood in the 19th century CE, but the actual belief structures, stories, and most significant figures in ancient mythology are remarkably similar from culture to culture.
 
In every culture, one finds the same or very similar patterns, which the people found resonant and which gave vitality to their beliefs. These patterns include the existence of many gods who take a personal interest in the lives of people; creation by a supernatural entity who speaks it, fashions it, or commands it into existence; other supernatural beings emanating from the first and greatest one; a supernatural explanation for the creation of the earth and human beings; a relationship between the created humans and their creator god requiring worship and sacrifice.
 
There is also the repetition of the figure known as the Dying and Reviving God, often a powerful entity himself, who is killed or dies and comes back to life for the good of his people: Osiris in Egypt, Krishna in India, the Maize God in Mesoamerica, Bacchus in Rome, Attis in Greece, Tammuz in Mesopotamia. There is often an afterlife similar to an earthly existence (Egypt and Greece), antithetical to life on earth (Mesoamerica and Mesopotamia), or a combination of both (China and India).
 
The resonant spiritual message of these different religions is repeated in texts from Phoenicia (2700 BCE) to Sumer (2100 BCE) to Palestine (1440 BCE) to Greece (800 BCE) to Rome (c. 100 CE) and went on to inform the beliefs of those who came later. This motif is even touched on in Judaism in the figure of Joseph (Genesis 37, 39-45) who is sold by his brothers into slavery in Egypt, goes down into prison following the accusations of Potiphar's wife, and is later released and restored. Although he does not actually die, after his symbolic 'resurrection' he saves the country from famine, providing for the people in the same way as other regenerative figures.
 
The Phoenician tale of the great god Baal who dies and returns to life to battle the chaos of the god Yamm was already old in 2750 BCE when the city of Tyre was founded (according to Herodotus) and the Greek story of the dying and reviving god Adonis (c. 600 BCE) was derived from earlier Phoenician tales based on Tammuz which was borrowed by the Sumerians (and later the Persians) in the famous Descent of Inanna myth.
 
This theme of life-after-death and life coming from death and, of course, the judgment after death, gained the greatest fame through the evangelical efforts of St. Paul who spread the word of the dying and reviving god Jesus Christ throughout ancient Palestine, Asia Minor, Greece, and Rome (c. 42-62 CE). Paul's vision of the figure of Jesus, the anointed son of God who dies to redeem humanity, was drawn from the earlier belief systems and informed the understanding of the scribes who would write the books which make up the Bible.
 
The religion of Christianity made standard a belief in an afterlife and set up an organized set of rituals by which an adherent could gain everlasting life. In so doing, the early Christians were simply following in the footsteps of the Sumerians, the Egyptians, the Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Romans all of whom had their own stylized rituals for the worship of their gods.
After the Christians, the Muslim interpreters of the Koran instituted their own rituals for understanding the supreme deity which, though vastly different in form from those of Christianity, Judaism or any of the older 'pagan' religions, served the same purpose as the rituals once practiced in worship of the Egyptian pantheon over 5,000 years ago: to provide human beings with the understanding that they are not alone in their struggles, suffering, and triumphs, that they can restrain their baser urges, and that death is not the end of existence. The religions of the ancient world provided answers to people's questions about life and death and, in this regard, are no different than those faiths practiced in the world today.

 
Editorial Review
This Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication.

 
Bibliography
Ghosts in the Ancient World by Joshua J. Mark
Greek Religion by Mark Cartwright
Roman Household Spirits by Joshua J. Mark
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Bauer, S.W. The History of the Ancient World. (W. W. Norton & Company, 2007).
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Bulfinch, T. Bulfinch's Mythology. (Public Domain Books, 2009).
Koller, J.M. Asian Philosophies. (Routledge, 2004).
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Plato. The Collected Dialogues of Plato. (Princeton University Press, 2005).
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Stuart, G.E. The Mysterious Maya. (National Geographic Society, 1977).
 
Ancient Egyptian Religion - Ancient History Encyclopedia
https://www.ancient.eu/Egyptian_Religion
by Joshua J. Mark
published on 10 February 2017

Symbols
 
Symbols in a largely illiterate society serve the vital purpose of relaying the most important values of the culture to the people generation after generation, and so it was in ancient Egypt. The peasant farmer would not have been able to read the literature, poetry, or hymns which told the stories of his gods, kings, and history but could look at an obelisk or a relief on a temple wall and read them there through the symbols used.
 
Ankh, Djed & Was
 
The three most important symbols, often appearing in all manner of Egyptian artwork from amulets to architecture, were the ankh, the djed, and the was scepter. These were frequently combined in inscriptions and often appear on sarcophagi together in a group or separately. In the case of each of these, the form represents the eternal value of the concept: the ankh represented life; the djed stability; the was power. Scholar Richard H. Wilkinson, noting the importance of form-as-function, relates the following:
A little known but fascinating inscription made at the command of the pharaoh Thutmose IV records the discovery by the king of a stone. The significance of this celebrated stone lay not in its being of rare material or appearance, the inscription tells us, but because "his majesty found this stone in the shape of a divine hawk". That an Egyptian king should place so much importance on a mere rock simply because of its shape is instructive, for it shows how alert the ancient Egyptian was to the shapes of objects and to the symbolic importance which the dimension of form could hold. (16)

 
The Ankh
 
The ankh is a cross with a looped top which, besides the concept of life, also symbolized eternal life, the morning sun, the male and female principles, the heavens and the earth. Its form embodied these concepts in its key-like shape; in carrying the ankh, one was holding the key to the secrets of existence. The union of opposites (male and female, earth and heaven) and the extension of earthly life to eternal, time to eternity, were all represented in the form of the looped cross. The symbol was so potent, and so long-lived in Egyptian culture (dating from the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt, c. 3150-c. 2613 BCE), that it is no surprise it was appropriated by the Christian faith in the 4th century CE as a symbol for their god.
 
The origin of the ankh symbol is unknown, but Egyptologist E. A. Wallis Budge claims it may have developed from the tjet, the 'Knot of Isis,' a similar symbol with the arms at its sides associated with the goddess. Female deities were as popular, and seem to be considered more powerful (as in the example of the goddess Neith), in the early history of Egypt, and perhaps the ankh did develop from the tjet, but this theory is not universally accepted.
 
The ankh was closely associated with the cult of Isis, however, and as her popularity grew, so did that of the symbol. Many different gods are depicted holding the ankh and it appears, along with the djed symbol, in virtually every kind of Egyptian artwork from sarcophagi to tomb paintings, palace adornments, statuary, and inscriptions. As an amulet, the ankh was almost as popular as the scarab and the djed.
 
The Djed
 
The djed is a column with a broad base narrowing as it rises to a capital and crossed by four parallel lines. It first appears in the Predynastic Period in Egypt (c. 6000-c. 3150 BCE) and remains a staple of Egyptian iconography through the Ptolemaic Period (323-30 BCE), the last to rule the country before the coming of Rome. Although understood as representing stability, the symbol served to remind one of the close presence of the gods as it also referenced the god Osiris and so was linked with resurrection and eternal life. The djed was thought to represent the god's backbone and frequently appears on the bottom of sarcophagi in order to help the newly arrived soul stand up and walk into the afterlife.
 
The symbol has also been interpreted as four columns rising behind each other, the tamarisk tree in which Osiris is enclosed in his most popular myth, and a fertility pole raised during festivals, but in each case, the message of the form goes back to the stability in life and hope in the afterlife, provided by the gods.
 
In the interpretation of the symbol as four columns, the number most frequently appearing in Egyptian iconography is represented: four. The number symbolized completeness and is seen in art, architecture, and funerary goods such as the Four Sons of Horus of the canopic jars, the four sides of a pyramid, and so on. The other interpretations likewise symbolize concepts associated with the Osiris-Isis myth. The djed as the tamarisk tree speaks of rebirth and resurrection as, in the myth, the tree holds Osiris until he is freed and brought back to life by Isis. The fertility pole is also associated with Osiris who caused the waters of the Nile River to rise, fertilize the land, and flow again to its natural course. In each case, whatever object it is claimed to represent, the djed was a very powerful symbol which was often coupled with another: the was scepter.
 
The Was Scepter
 
The was scepter is a staff topped with the head of a canine, possibly Anubis, by the time of the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE) but earlier a totemic animal like a fox or dog. The was scepter evolved from the earliest scepters, a symbol of royal power, known as the hekat, seen in representations of the first king, Narmer (c. 3150 BCE) of the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-2613 BCE). By the time of the king Djet (c. 3000-2990 BCE) of the First Dynasty, the was scepter was fully developed and symbolized one's dominion and power.
 
The scepter was usually forked at the bottom but this changed according to which god or mortal was holding it and so did the color of the staff. Hathor, associated with the cow, holds the scepter forked at the bottom in the shape of cow horns. Isis holds a similar object but with the traditional fork representing duality. The was scepter of Ra-Horakhty ('Horus in the Horizon'), god of the rising and setting sun, was blue to symbolize the sky while that of the sun god Ra was represented with a snake attached to it symbolizing rebirth, as the sun rose again each morning.
 
Each god's was scepter denoted their particular dominion in one way or another. The god Ptah, from the Early Dynastic Period, holds a was scepter which combines all three symbols, the ankh, djed, and was, with a circle at the bottom symbolizing unity. The combination of the symbols, naturally, combined their power which was only fitting for this god who was associated with creation and known as the 'sculptor of the earth.' The three symbols at the top of Ptah's staff, along with the circle at the bottom, presented the overall meaning of completeness, totality, in the number four. 
 
Significance of Number in Symbols
 
The combination of the symbols always had a specific meaning. Wilkinson writes, "One of the most important principles for understanding the numerical symbolism of Egyptian representational works is that of the extension of numbers" (138). A two-dimensional work of art, such as an image of a god or goddess, is often depicted in such a way that the number four is implied and this practice applies to many numbers so that, as Wilkinson notes, "the number actually depicted must be mentally 'extended' in order to properly understand its significance in the composition" (138). An example of this is representations of the djed as four columns each rising behind the other. Although the number four represents completeness, the multiplication of four extending toward the horizon would add the equally important concept of eternity. The djed symbol used throughout the pyramid complex of Djoser at Saqqara is a prime example of this. At Djoser's complex, the djed appears on temple lintels appearing to hold up the sky. If the djed is interpreted as four columns multiplied infinitely then the concept of eternity is emphasized through the architecture. The ankh, djed, and was in architecture are frequently employed in such a way as to double, triple, or quadruple their number for just this kind of emphasis. Wilkinson writes:
 
A common example of the principle where two represents four is found in the pair of was sceptres which were used to depict the pillars of the sky and which were shown standing on the ta or earth hieroglyph, and supporting the pet or sky hieroglyph. This group was frequently used as a framing device around the sides of temple reliefs,  symbolically placing the compositions in a cosmic setting. Because these representations are only two-dimensional, however, an abbreviated view of the various elements is given. (138)
 
These symbols, singly or together, adorned the items the Egyptians used regularly in their daily lives. Amulets were worn by every class of Egyptian society with the djed among the most popular followed by the scarab, the ankh, the tjet, the shen, the was, and others. These other potent symbols were frequently paired, or associated, with the three most often used.
 
The Udjat Eye
 
The udjat is another well-known symbol from Egypt: the Eye of Ra. The symbol of the eye is associated with the protective goddess Wadjet during the Predynastic Period and continued to be even though it was later more regularly linked to Horus, Ra, and others through the motif of the Distant Goddess.
 
Eye of Horus
 
The distant goddess story has many forms in Egyptian mythology but one consistent plot: a goddess in some way rebels against the king of the gods, leaves her home and responsibilities behind to journey to a far-off land and must be brought back (or tricked into returning) thus initiating some kind of transformation. The udjat either represented the goddess or was sent to retrieve her and could take many forms. As the Eye of Ra it was understood to symbolize his watchful presence over creation and is frequently depicted in myths (like those of the distant goddess) being sent forth to gather information for Ra. The udjat remained a consistently potent symbol throughout Egypt's history.
 
The Sesen
 
The sesen is the lotus flower which appears so often in Egyptian art and symbolizes life, creation, rebirth and, especially, the sun. The symbol dates to the Early Dynastic Period but became most popular from the Old Kingdom onwards. The lotus flower closes at evening and sinks down beneath the water, then at daybreak, it emerges to open again; this pattern identified it with the sun and, therefore, with life.
 
Stela of Ihefy & Horus
 
The flower also represented rebirth for the same reason and was associated with the god Osiris. The Four Sons of Horus, regularly represented on canopic jars, are often depicted standing together on a lotus in the presence of Osiris. The lotus flower appears in many different types of Egyptian art from faience statuary to sarcophagi, temples, shrines, and on amulets. It was the symbol of Upper Egypt as the papyrus plant symbolized Lower Egypt and the flower is sometimes depicted with its stem entwined with that of the papyrus plant.
 
Other Symbols
 
There were many other important symbols throughout Egypt's history. The bennu bird, for example, was the model for the Greek phoenix, and symbolized resurrection. The white ostrich feather symbolized the goddess Ma'at but also the concept of balance and truth she stood for. The Tree of Life stood for knowledge, purpose, and destiny. Snakes and serpents represented transformation and change. The cobra was a protective image, associated early with the goddess Wadjet, who drove off the enemies of Ra; with hood extended and rearing to strike, the cobra became the insignia of kings and was worn on the uraeus, the royal headdress.
 
Magic in ancient Egypt
 
In ancient Egypt, if a woman were having difficulty conceiving a child, she might spend an evening in a Bes Chamber (also known as an incubation chamber) located within a temple. Bes was the god of childbirth, sexuality, fertility, among other his other responsibilities, and it was thought an evening in the god's presence would encourage conception. Women would carry Bes amulets, wear Bes tattoos, in an effort to encourage fertility.
 
Once a child was born, Bes images and amulets were used in protection as he or she grew and, later, the child would become an adult who adopted these same rituals and beliefs in daily life. At death, the person was thought to move on to another plane of existence, the land of the gods, and the rituals surrounding burial were based on the same understanding one had known all of one's life: that supernatural powers were as real as any other aspect of existence and the universe was infused by magic.
 
Magic in ancient Egypt was not a parlor trick or illusion; it was the harnessing of the powers of natural laws, conceived of as supernatural entities, in order to achieve a certain goal. To the Egyptians, a world without magic was inconceivable. It was through magic that the world had been created, magic sustained the world daily, magic healed when one was sick, gave when one had nothing, and assured one of eternal life after death. The Egyptologist James Henry Breasted has famously remarked how magic infused every aspect of ancient Egyptian life and was "as much a matter of course as sleep or the preparation of food" (200). Magic was present in one's conception, birth, life, death, and afterlife and was represented by a god who was older than creation: Heka.
 
Heka
 
Heka was the god of magic and the practice of the art itself. A magician-priest or priest-physician would invoke Heka in the practice of heka. The god was known as early as the Pre-Dynastic period (c. 6000-c. 3150 BCE), developed during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-c. 2613 BCE) and appears in The Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom (c. 2613-2181 BCE) and the Coffin Texts of the First Intermediate Period (2181-2040 BCE). Heka never had a temple, cult following, or formal worship for the simple reason that he was so all-pervasive he permeated every area of Egyptian life.
 
Like the goddess Ma'at, who also never had a formal cult or temple, Heka was considered the underlying force of the visible and invisible world. Ma'at represented the central Egyptian value of balance and harmony while Heka was the power which made balance, harmony, and every other concept or aspect of life possible. In the Coffin Texts, Heka claims this primordial power stating, "To me belonged the universe before you gods came into being. You have come afterwards because I am Heka" (Spell 261). After creation, Heka sustained the world as the power which gave the gods their abilities. Even the gods feared him and, in the words of Egyptologist Richard H. Wilkinson, "he was viewed as a god of inestimable power" (110). This power was evident in one's daily life: the world operated as it did because of the gods and the gods were able to perform their duties because of Heka.
 
Magic & Religion
 
The priests of the temple cults understood this but their function was to honor and care for their particular deity and ensure a reciprocity between that god and the people. The priests or priestesses, therefore, would not invoke Heka directly because he was already present in the power of the deity they served.
 
Magic in religious practice took the form of establishing what was already known about the gods and how the world worked. In the words of Egyptologist Jan Assman, the rituals of the temple "predominantly aimed at maintenance and stability" (4).
 
Egyptologist Margaret Bunson clarifies:
The main function of priests appears to have remained constant; they kept the temple and sanctuary areas pure, conducted the cultic rituals and observances, and performed the great festival ceremonies for the public. (208)

 
In their role as defenders of the faith, they were also expected to be able to display the power of their god against those of any other nation. A famous example of this is given in the biblical book of Exodus (7:10-12) when Moses and Aaron confront the Egyptian "wise men and sorcerors".
 
The priest was the intermediary between the gods and the people but, in daily life, individuals could commune with the gods through their own private practices.  Whatever other duties the priest engaged in, as Assman points out, his primary importance was in imparting to people theological meaning through mythological narratives. They might offer counsel or advice or material goods but, in cases of sickness or injury or mental illness, another professional was consulted: the physician.
 
Magic & Medicine
 
Heka was the god of medicine as well as magic and for good reason: the two were considered equally important by medical professionals. There was a kind of doctor with the title of swnw (general practitioner) and another known as a sau (magical practitioner) denoting their respective areas of expertise but magic was widely used by both. Doctors operated out of an institution known as the Per-Ankh ("The House of Life"), a part of a temple where medical texts were written, copied, studied, and discussed.
 
The medical texts of ancient Egypt contain spells as well as what one today would consider 'practical measures' in treating disease and injury. Disease was considered supernatural in origin throughout Egypt's history even though the architect Imhotep (c. 2667-2600 BCE) had written medical treatises explaining that disease could occur naturally and was not necessarily a punishment sent by the gods.
 
The priest-physician-magician would carefully examine and question a patient to determine the nature of the problem and would then invoke whatever god seemed most appropriate to deal with it. Disease was a disruption of the natural order and so, unlike the role of the temple priest who maintained the people's belief in the gods through standard rituals, the physician was dealing with powerful and unpredictable forces which had to be summoned and controlled expertly.
 
Doctors, even in rural villages, were expensive and so people often sought medical assistance from someone who might have once worked with a doctor or had acquired some medical knowledge in some other way. These individuals seem to have regularly set broken bones or prescribed herbal remedies but would not have been thought authorized to invoke a spell for healing. That would have been the official view on the subject, however; it seems a number of people who were not considered doctors still practiced medicine of a sort through magical means.   
 
Magic in Daily Life
 
Among these were the seers, wise women who could see the future and were also instrumental in healing. Egyptologist Rosalie David notes how, "it has been suggested that such seers may have been a regular aspect of practical religion in the New Kingdom and possibly even in earlier times" (281). Seers could help women conceive, interpret dreams, and prescribed herbal remedies for diseases. Although the majority of Egyptians were illiterate, it seems some people - like the seers - could memorize spells read to them for later use.
 
Egyptians of every social class from the king to the peasant believed in and relied upon magic in their daily lives. Evidence for this practice comes from the number of amulets and charms found through excavations, inscriptions on obelisks, monuments, palaces, and temples, tomb engravings, personal and official correspondence, inscriptions, and grave goods. Rosalie David explains that "magic had been given by the gods to mankind as a means of self-defense and this could be exercised by the king or by magicians who effectively took on the role of the gods" (283). When a king, magician, or doctor was unavailable, however, everyday people performed their own rituals.
 
Charms and spells were used to increase fertility, for luck in business, for improved health, and also to curse an enemy. One's name was considered one's identity but Egyptians believed that everyone also had a secret name (the ren) which only the individual and the gods knew. To discover one's secret name was to gain power over them. Even if one could not discover another person's ren they could still exercise control by slandering the person's name or even erasing that person's name from history.
 
Magic in Death
 
Just as magic was involved in one's birth and life, so was it present at one's departure to the next world. Mummification was practiced in order to preserve the body so that it could be recognized by the soul in the afterlife. The last act of the priests at a funeral was the Opening of the Mouth Ceremony during which they would touch the mummified corpse with different objects at various places on the body in order to restore the use of ears, eyes, mouth, and nose. Through this magical ritual the departed would be able to see and hear, smell and taste, and speak in the afterlife.
 
Emulets were wrapped with the mummy for protection and grave goods were included in the tomb to help the departed soul in the next world. Many grave goods were practical items or favorite objects they had enjoyed in life but many others were magical charms or objects which could be called upon for assistance.
The best known of these type were the shabti dolls. These were figures made of faience or wood or any other kind of material which sometimes looked like the deceased. Since the afterlife was considered a continuation of one's earthly life, the shabti could be called upon to work for one in The Field of Reeds. Spell 472 of the Coffin Texts (repeated later as Spell 6 of The Egyptian Book of the Dead) is given to bring the Shabti to life when one needs to so one can continue to enjoy the afterlife without worrying about work.

 
The Egyptian Book of the Dead exemplifies the belief in magic at work in the afterlife. The text contains 190 spells to help the soul navigate the afterlife to reach the paradise of The Field of Reeds, an eternal paradise which perfectly reflected one's life on earth but without disappointment, disease or the fear of death and loss. Throughout The Egyptian Book of the Dead the soul is instructed which spells to use to pass across certain rooms, enter doors, transform one's self into different animals to escape dangers, and how to answer the questions of the gods and those of their realm. All of these spells would have seemed as natural to an ancient Egyptian as detailed directions on a map would be to anyone today - and just as reasonable.
 
Conclusion
 
It may seem strange to a modern mind to equate magical solutions with reason but this is simply because, today, one has grown used to a completely different paradigm than the one which prevailed in ancient Egypt. This does not mean, however, that their understanding was misguided or `primitive' and the present one is sophisticated and correct. In the present, one believes that the model of the world and the universe collectively recognized as 'true' is the best model possible precisely because it is true.
 
According to this understanding, beliefs which differ from one's truth must be wrong but this is not necessarily so. The scholar C.S. Lewis is best known for his fantasy works about the land of Narnia but he wrote many other books and articles on literature, society, religion, and culture. In his book The Discarded Image, Lewis argues that societies do not dismiss the old paradigms because the new ones are found to be more true but because the old belief system no longer suits a society's needs. The prevailing beliefs of the modern world which people consider more advanced than those of the past are not necessarily more true but only more acceptable. People in the present day accept these concepts as true because they fit their model of how the world works.
 
This was precisely the same way in which the ancient Egyptians saw their world. The model of the world as they understood it contained magic as an essential element and this was completely reasonable to them. All of life had come from the gods and these gods were not distant beings but friends and neighbors who inhabited the temple in the city, the trees by the stream, the river which gave life, the fields one plowed. Every civilization in any given era believes that it knows and operates on the basis of truth; if they did not, they would change.
 
When the model of the world changed for ancient Egypt c. 4th century CE - from a henotheistic/polytheistic understanding to the monotheism of Christianity - their understanding of 'truth' also changed and the kind of magic they recognized as imbuing their lives was exchanged for a new pardigm which fit their new understanding. This does not mean that new understanding was correct or more 'true' than what they had believed in for millenia; merely that it was now more acceptable.
 
Editorial Review
This Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication.

 
Bibliography
Magic and Theology in Ancient Egypt by Jan Assman
The Doctor in Ancient Egypt by J.F. Nunn
Breasted, J. H. Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt. (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972).
Bunson, M. The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. (Gramercy Books, 1991).
David, R. Religion and Magic in Ancient Egypt. (Penguin Books, 2003).
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