Pharaohs

(updated: 6/12/18)


To view highlights and detailed information about each Pharaoh, refer to the table below. Move your mouse (or tap for applicable mobile devices) on each link that says 'View Image' for a larger portrait of each pharaoh or representation, along with a brief summary.

Click (or tap for applicable mobile devices) on 'More Details' for images and detailed information regarding a time-period or person.

Chronology through the 32nd Dynasty from Khasekhem and Djoser, through Alexander the Great, Tutankhamun, and Cleopatra. This is an ongoing research to identify additional pharaohs among the dynasties.

Please note the years listed for the dynasties and each pharaoh are approximate.




Ref# Name Dynasty Timeline View Image and Highlights Additional Information

2nd Dynasty - 2890 to 2686 BCE
1 Khasekhem Second 2690 BCE View Image 

3rd Dynasty - 2686 to 2613 BCE
2 Djoser Third 2670 BCE View Image 
3 Huni Third 2637-2613 BCE View Image 

4th Dynasty - 2613 to 2498 BCE
4 Sneferu Fourth 2613-2589 BCE View Image (341 ft/103m from the base to the tip), which is a pyramid built at a normal angle at the bottom but drastically changes at the top. He also built the first "true" pyramid, the Red Pyramid. Some say that he was buried in the Red Pyramid, while others say that he was buried in the Bent Pyramid. Bones have been found at the Red Pyramid, but there is no evidence that this is Sneferu's body.
5 Khufu Fourth 2589-2566 BCE View Image Note that Khufu is spoken of in early sources as being "third" of his family to rule, although there is no known record of a Pharaoh between Sneferu and Khufu. One supposition is that there might have been a very short reign of some elder brother of Khufu, whose inscriptions, names, and monuments have perished for one reason or another.
6 Djedefra (Radjedef) Fourth 2566-2558 BCE View Image He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from. Before being demolished by the Romans, according to a documentary aired by the History Channel, the pyramid may actually have been the highest ever built (about 20 meters taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza although this is due to its elevated location rather than the size from base to tip).
7 Khafra Fourth 2558-2532 BCE View Image Credited by some Egyptologists as the builder of the Great Sphinx of Giza.
8 Menkaura Fourth 2532-2503 BCE View Image  
9 Shepseskafa Fourth 2503-2498 BCE View Image  

5th Dynasty - 2498 to 2345 BCE
10 Userkaf Fifth 2498-2491 BCE View Image Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple as Abusir.
11 Sahure Fifth 2490-2477 BCE View Image Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir where he built his pyramid.
12 Neferirkare (Kakai) Fifth 2477-2478 BCE View Image  
13 Sheoseskare (Isi) Fifth 2477-2467 BCE View Image Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months.
14 Neferefre Fifth 2460-2458 BCE View Image  
15 Nyuserre (Ini) Fifth 2445-2422 BCE View Image  

6th through 10th Dynasties - 2345 to 2040 BCE
Refer to main timeline for detailed information

11th Dynasty - 2133 to 1991 BCE
16 WahankhIntef II Eleventh 2117-2069 BCE View Image  
17 Nebhetepre Mentuhotep II Eleventh 2060-2010 BCE View Image  
18 Sankhkare Mentuhotep III Eleventh 2010-1998 BCE View Image  

12th Dynasty - 1991 to 1786 BCE
19 Sehetepirbra Amenemhat I Twelfth 1991-1962 BCE View Image Seized power after overthrowing Mentuhotep IV
20 Kheperkare Senusret I
Sesostris I)
Twelfth 1971-1926 BCE View Image Built the White Chapel
21 Khakarue Senusret III
(Sesostris III)
Twelfth 1878-1860 BCE View Image Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom Pharaohs

13th Dynasty - 1786 to 1650 BCE
22 Sekhemre Khuawy Sobekhotep I Thirteenth 1802-1800 BCE View Image Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies.

14th Dynasty - 1786 to 1650 BCE
23 Khasekhemre Neferhotep I Fourteenth 1751-1740 BCE View Image  

15th Dynasty BCE
Refer to main timeline for detailed information

16th Dynasty - 1650 to 1600 BCE
24 Sekhemre Wahkhaw Rahotep Sixteenth 1620 BCE (approx). View Image  

17th Dynasty - 1550 BCE
25 Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I Seventeenth 1620 BCE (approx). View Image  

18th Dynasty - 1550 to 1292 BCE
25 Nebpehtire Ahmose I
Ahmosis I
Eighteenth 1550 - 1525 BCE View Image Brother and successor to Kamose, conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos.
26 Djeserkare Amenhotep I Eighteenth 1550 - 1525 BCE View Image  
27 Aakheperkare Thutmose I Eighteenth 1520 - 1492 BCE View Image  
28 Aakheperenre Thutmose II Eighteenth 1492 - 1479 BCE View Image  
29 Maatkare Hatshepsut Eighteenth 1479 - 1458 BCE View Image The second known female ruler, though quite possibly the seventh (the reigns of five other women are likely, but disputed). Recent evidence suggests she died of bone cancer.
30 Menkheperre Thutmose III Eighteenth 1479 - 1425 BCE View Image Dominated early in his reign by his stepmother Hatshepsut; after she died, he began expanding Egyptian rule into the Levant.
31 Aakheperrure Amenhotep II Eighteenth 1425 - 1400 BCE View Image  
32 Menkheperure Thutmose IV Eighteenth 1400 - 1390 BCE View Image  
33 Nebmaatre Amenhotep III Eighteenth 1390 - 1352 BCE View Image "The magnificent King". Ruled Egypt at the peak of its power, surpassed all pharaohs in numbers of monuments built and statues erected. His mortuary temple was the largest ever built, only to be destroyed by Rameses II.
34 Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten Eighteenth 1352 - 1334 BCE View Image Founder of brief period of a solar-centered religion (Atenism).
35 Ankhkheperur Smenkhkare Eighteenth 1334 - 1333 BCE View Image Usually believed to be either a son or son-in-law of Akhenaten but sometimes identified as Akhenaten's wife Nefertiti. Other scholars distinguish two individuals between Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, namely Smenkhkare, who is then seen as male, and a female ruler, who is then most often identified as Akhenaten's eldest daughter Meritaten.
36 Nebkheperure Tutankhaten / Tutankhamun Eighteenth 1333-1324 BCE View Image Probably reinstated the polytheistic religion and the name change (NebkheperureTutankhaten / Tutankhamun) reflects the change in primary deity from Aten to Amun.
37 Kheperkheperure Ay Eighteenth 1324 - 1320 BCE View Image Close advisor to two and perhaps three of the pharaohs who ruled before him.
38 Djeserkheperure-setpenreHoremheb Eighteenth 1320 - 1292 BCE View Image Obliterated images of the Amarna queens and kings (all except Amenhotep III and Tiye).

19th Dynasty - 1292 to 1186 BCE
39 Menpehtire Ramesses I Nineteenth 1292 - 1290 BCE View Image  
40 Menmaatre Seti I Nineteenth 1290 - 1279 BCE View Image  
41 Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great Nineteenth 1279 - 1213 BCE View Image He reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which a peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC
42 Banenre Merenptah Nineteenth 1213 - 1203 BCE View Image A stele describing campaigns in Libya and Canaan contains the only extant reference to "Israel” in Ancient Egyptian records.
43 Menmire-setpenreAmenmesse Nineteenth 1203 - 1200 BCE View Image  
44 Userkheperure Seti II Nineteenth 1203 - 1197 BCE View Image  
45 Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah Nineteenth 1197 - 1191 BCE View Image  
46 Satre-merenamun Tausret Nineteenth 1191 - 1190 BCE View Image A rare female ruler also known as Tawosret in some places. She was possibly the wife of Seti II.

20th Dynasty - 1190 to 1077 BCE
47 --unidentified-- Twentieth 1190 - 1186 BCE View Image Research continuing
48 Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III Twentieth 1186 - 1155 BCE View Image Assinated in a harem plot.
49 User/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV Twentieth 1155 - 1149 BCE View Image  
50 Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V Twentieth 1149 - 1145 BCE View Image  
51 Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI Twentieth 1145 - 1137 BCE View Image  
52 Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII Twentieth 1137 - 1130 BCE View Image  
53 Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII Twentieth 1130 - 1129 BCE View Image  
54 Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX Twentieth 1129 - 1111 BCE View Image  
55 Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X Twentieth 1111 - 1107 BCE View Image  
56 Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI Twentieth 1107 - 1077 BCE View Image Ended rule sharing power with High Priest of Amun, Herihor ruling in the south and Smendes I ruling in the north, a period known as Wehem Mesut.
57 Hedikeperre-Setpenre Nesbanendjed Twentieth 1077 - 1051 BCE View Image Also known as Smendes I

21th Dynasty - 1063 to 943 BCE
58 Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu Twenty-First 1051 - 1047 BCE View Image  
59 Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I) Twenty-First 1047 - 1001 BCE View Image  
60 Usermaatre Amenemope Twenty-First 1001 - 992 BCE View Image  

22nd Dynasty - 943 to 728 BCE
61 Hedikheperre-Setepenre Shosheng I Twenty-Second 943 - 922 BCE View Image  
62 Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I Twenty-Second 922 - 887 BCE View Image  
63 Heqakheperre Shosheng II Twenty-Second 887 - 885 BCE View Image  
64 Takelot I Twenty-Second 885 - 872 BCE View Image  
65 Hedjkheperre Harsiese Twenty-Second 880 - 860 BCE View Image A rebel, at Thebes

23rd Dynasty - 837 to 735 BCE
66 Usermaatre Piye Twenty-Third 752 - 721 BCE Research continuing - Image coming soon King of Nubia conquered Egypt in 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years.

24th Dynasty - 732 to 720 BCE
Refer to main timeline for detailed information

25th Dynasty - 730 to 656 BCE
67 Neferkare Shabaka Twenty-Fifth 721 - 707 BCE Research Continuing - Image coming soon  

26th Dynasty - 672 to 525 BCE
68 Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I) Twenty-Sixth 672 - 664 BCE Father of Psamtik I Was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani.
69 Bakare Tantaman Twenty-Sixth 664 - 653 BCE Lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year.  
70 Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I) Twenty-Sixth 664 - 610 BCE Son of Necho I and father of Necho II. Reunified Egypt
71 Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II) Twenty-Sixth 610 - 595 BCE Son of Psamtik I and father of Psamtik II Most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible
72 Haaibre Wahibre Apries Twenty-Sixth 589 - 570 BCE Son of Psamtik II Fled Egypt after Amasis II (who was a general at the time) declared himself pharaoh following a civil war.
73 Khnemibre Ahmose II / Amasis II Twenty-Sixth 570 - 526 BCE Father of Psamtik III He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, he was of common origins.
74 Ankhkaenre / Psamtik III (Psammetichus III) Twenty-Sixth 526 - 525 BCE Son of Amasis II Ruled for about six months before being defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium and subsequently executed.

27th Dynasty - 525 to 404 BCE
75 Metsuire Cambyses (Cambyses II) Twenty-Seventh 525 - 521 BCE Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 525 BC  
76 Petubastis III Twenty-Seventh 522 - 520 BCE A native Egyptian rebel in the Delta  
77 Smerdis (Bardiya) Twenty-Seventh 522 - 521 BCE Son of Cyrus the Great  
78 Setutre Darius I (the Great) Twenty-Seventh 521 - 486 BCE Research Continuing - image coming soon  

28th Dynasty - 404 to 398 BCE
79 Amyrtaeus Twenty-Eighth 404 - 398 BCE Descendant of the Saite pharaohs. Led a sucessful revolt against the Persians.

29th Dynasty - 404 to 380 BCE
80 Baenre Nefaarud I Twenty-Ninth 398 - 393 BCE Also known as Nepherites. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed.

30th Dynasty - 380 to 343 BCE
81 Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I) Thirtieth 380 - 362 BCE Father of Teos and also known as Nekhtnebef. Deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians.
82 Irimaatenre Diedher-Teos Thirtieth 380 - 362 BCE Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta.
83 Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II) Thirtieth 360 - 343 BCE Last native ruler of ancient Egypt  

31st Dynasty - 343 to 305 BCE
84 Artaxerxes III Thirty-First 343 - 338 BCE Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time  
85 Arterxes IV / Arses Thirty-First 338 - 336 BCE Only reigned in Lower Egypt  
86 Khabavash Thirty-First 338 - 335 BCE Rebel Pharaoh who led an invasion in Nubia  
87 Darius III Thirty-First 336 - 332 BCE Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BCE  
88 Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III Thirty-First 332 - 323 BCE Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt Alexander the Great
89 Philip III Arrhidaeus Thirty-First 323 - 317 BCE Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III the Great  
90 Haaibre Alexander IV Thirty-First 317 - 309 BCE Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana  

Ptolemaic Dynasty - 305 to 30 BCE
91 Setepenre-Meryamun / Ptolemy I (Soter) 32nd - Ptolemaic 305 - 285 BCE Abdicated in 285 BCE.  
92 Cleopatra II 32nd - Ptolemaic 163-127 BCE View Image  
93 Ptolemy X / Alexander I 32nd - Ptolemaic 110 - 109 BCE    
94 Cleopatra VII 32nd - Ptolemaic 51-30 BCE View Image